1702 (February 20). Queen’s Accession, on the death of
War of the Spanish Succession begun (May). England,
Holland, and the Empire against France and Spain:
to determine the succession to the Crown of Spain.
Two claimants, Philip, grandson of Louis XIV, and
Archduke Charles of Austria, the latter supported by
England and her allies.
Duke of Marlborough, in command of allied forces, took
the strongholds of Venloo, Ruremonde, and Liége;
France cut off from Holland and Lower Rhine.
Marlborough made a duke.
Spanish fleet at Vigo captured by Sir George Rooke.
Godolphin appointed Lord Treasurer, and Nottingham
a Secretary of State.
Louis of Baden defeated by French at Friedlingen.
Battle of Cremona: French stopped by Eugene of Savoy
from entering the Tyrol.
1703 Second Grand Alliance. (First Grand Alliance in 1689.)
Nearly all Germany, and Savoy join the coalition
against the French.
French marching in the direction of Vienna.
Methuen Treaty; Portugal joined the Alliance.
Marlborough hampered by the Dutch Government and
unable to follow the French.
Marlborough took Bonn; giving command of Upper
1704 Battle of Donauwörth. Eugene joined Marlborough.
(August 4). Gibraltar taken by Sir George Rooke,
Sir George Byng, and Sir Cloudesley Shovel.
(August 13). Blenheim. Marlborough and Eugene
defeated French and Bavarians under Marshals
Tallard and Marsin. Vienna saved: Marlborough
received Woodstock Manor as a reward.
Act of Security passed by Scotch Parliament.
1705 Marlborough opposed by Allies, and prevented from
marching into France.
Barcelona taken by Lord Peterborough; the Catalan
district of Spain won for the Archduke Charles.
Coalition between the more moderate Tories and the
1706 Ramillies (May 12), won by Marlborough against Villeroy:
Allies occupied Antwerp, Brussels, Ghent, Bruges,
Ostend, a line of fortresses cutting off French from
Turin besieged by French: siege raised by Prince
1707 Capitulation of Milan signed by Louis: Milan and
Naples secured to Archduke Charles.
Minorca captured by General Stanhope.
Battle of Almanza (Spain): English under Lord
Ghent and Bruges retaken by French.
Whig resolution not to make peace so long as a Bourbon
ruled in Spain.
Union with Scotland (October 23): Scotland to send
sixteen peers and forty-five Commoners to United
Houses of Parliament: Law and Church of Scotland
left untouched: privileges of trade and coinage to
be the same for both countries.
1708 Harley and St. John dismissed: Whigs came into power
(July 11). Oudenarde: Marlborough and Eugene
defeated Vendôme: Lille secured. Bruges and
Ghent retaken by Allies.
Attempted landing in Scotland by the Pretender
1709 Peace Conference at the Hague. Louis declined to
remove his grandson from the throne of Spain.
(September 11). Malplaquet: Marlborough and Eugene
Mons taken by the Allies.
Quarrel between the Queen and the Duchess of Marlborough.
Dr. Sacheverell’s sermons.
1710 Peace proposals by Louis at Gertruydenberg rejected.
Dr. Sacheverell sentenced: Tory party greatly helped
Battle of Almenara (Spain): French and Spanish
defeated by Stanhope.
Battle of Saragossa: French and Spanish defeated by
Battle of Brihuega: Stanhope beaten by Vendôme.
Battle of Villa Viciosa: General Staremberg defeated
by Vendôme: Spain secured for Philip V.
Bouchain taken by Marlborough.
Fall of the Whigs.
General Post Office established.
St. Paul’s Cathedral finished.
1711 All Whigs dismissed from office, and Tories alone to
form the Ministry, thus establishing the principle
that the members of the Cabinet should all be of
the same political party.
Duchess of Marlborough supplanted by Mrs. Masham.
Death of the Emperor Joseph, and accession of Archduke
Charles: no farther need now to continue
Tories determined to put an end to the war.
1712 Twelve new Tory peers created to destroy the Whig
majority which was in favour of continuing the war.
Marlborough deprived of his command: Ormonde to
Peace Conference at Utrecht.
Act against Occasional Conformity.
1713 (March 3). Treaty of Utrecht: Spain to Philip:
Minorca and Gibraltar to England: Spanish lands
in Italy and Netherlands to Emperor Charles: Sicily
to Savoy. Prussia made a kingdom.
1714 Quarrel between Harley and Bolingbroke: Harley
Schism Act: schoolmasters to belong to the Church of
Bolingbroke’s free trade proposals defeated by the Whigs.
Death of Electress Sophia: George of Hanover now heir
to the British throne.
(July 30). Death of Anne: Accession of George I.